History of the Kyrgyz language

    History of the Kyrgyz language. The content of the general concept of "Kyrgyz language" is formed not only by its own modern grammatical and lexical features, but also by features of the same nature as the distant and closely related Turkic languages. This is because the origin and development of our language over the centuries have not been the same, but as a result of internal and external influences, while maintaining its basic grammatical features, the vocabulary has increased and some grammatical phenomena have changed. Another noteworthy fact is that in history, sociology, philosophy, social sciences and linguistics, the concepts of "tribe", "tribe", "people" and "nation" are used differently with changes in general ideological views: for example, in ancient Chinese chronicles ( 2nd century BC) means "Kyrgyz people" - "Kyrgyz state". Before talking about the history of the Kyrgyz language in general, it is said that it is called "common language", "common literary language" and "written literary language" and their different uses in Kyrgyz linguistics, and why. there is. These issues were first addressed in 1950-60 by the theorist of Kyrgyz linguistics, Academician B. М. It was initiated by Yunusaliev and studied in Kyrgyzstan and was “related to the founding of Kyrgyz dialectology. Since language has not been preserved in writing at all stages of its historical development, research confirms that truth can only be achieved by comparing it with other related languages: in fact, the truth is revealed only by comparing the ancient facts of language with the facts and living phenomena of related languages. . It is known that the Kyrgyz language belongs to the group of languages ​​of the Altai group (ie, Turkish, Mongol-Manchu and Finno-Ugric). And the history of its development is Academician B. М. According to Yunusaliev, it is divided into 3 periods: Ancient, Middle and New. 1. The ancient (Yenisei-Mongol) period covers the 7th-12th centuries, when the Kyrgyz migrated west from the Yenisei and gradually settled in the area between the Irtysh River (ie in the Minusa Basin), and the linguistic symbols are derived from the middle generation of adjectives [d]. - бут (нога)], in verbs, like words at the end of the word [«kod» - sheep (put)], then took such a form and was called a linguistic sign characterizing the period when runic writing was used as a literary form in Turkic languages. At that time, this was typical of the languages ​​of the ancient ancestors of modern Khakas, Shor, Tuva and Tofa. Thus, the linguistic phenomenon "e" was different from the dialectal features of any of the languages ​​at that time - it was considered a common literary language, and "e" was a sign of literary commonality. The oral Kyrgyz language of that time was characterized by "z", and the above words were in the form of "azak" (foot) and "koz" (put). The fact that traces of such linguistic differences are preserved in the Fuyu Kyrgyz living in the Heilongjiang Province of China confirms the above opinion. Traces of this phenomenon in our language today are "eye: eye, eye" and "sheep" - supply; The "foot" (spelling "foot") is also a testimony to such phenomena as the foot. The above-mentioned facts from the language of the Fuyu Kyrgyz testify to the fact that the traces of the ancient Yenisei Kyrgyz language were preserved even during the Mongol period. In the middle of the 9th century, when the Kyrgyz conquered the Ancient Uyghur Khaganate, the "z" language was adopted instead of the "d" language of the ancient Uyghurs, and linguistic differences in the language of the Yellow Uyghurs living in the Tibetan Plateau in China today prove that there was a language exchange. Thus, when it comes to the ancient Kyrgyz language, its status can be seen mainly in the languages ​​belonging to the group of "z" chyl languages ​​(Fuyu Kyrgyz, Sary-Yugur, Khakass and Shor languages). There were also no long vowels in the ancient Kyrgyz language; The solubility is very strong, not only thin vowels, but also broad vowels are soluble: "togos" - nine, "kozon" - hare, "tuhul" (Mongolian "tugal") - calf (comparison in modern Kyrgyz "tokol" bezrogiy) ; at the beginning of the word only soft "b": "corrupt" - high; "One" - one; "G": "road" - the road, "ji" - "or" - to eat. This period was characterized by a soft "g" in the middle of the word: "heavy" - heavy; "Stream" - a company; Even at the end of the word - that sound: "yellow" - yellow; "Water" - water b. Towards the end of this period (11th-12th centuries) the Kyrgyz language began to mix with the Kypchak languages. 2. Middle of the Kyrgyz language (Altai) period covers the 13th and 14th centuries, during which time some Kyrgyz tribes migrated to the Southern Altai as a result of Mongol exile, and were influenced by the languages ​​of the local Altai tribes (ie, interactions) and even by the Kypchak languages. the western "y" becomes a wild language, for example, "ayak" - noga; "Koi" - put, put. During this period, along with the Altaic-Kyrgyz linguistic commonalities, it is observed that each of them has its own linguistic features. At the beginning of this Middle Ages, a small part of the Kyrgyz people moved south from the Kyrgyz-Altai tribal mix and settled on the shores of Lake Lobnor. Е. According to Malov's definition, this language, which is descended from the ancient Yenisei Kyrgyz, has preserved the features of the ancient Kyrgyz language in the language of the people (Loptuks). There are no long vowels in that language, except for the middle Kyrgyz language differences. In Lobnorcho, melting is maintained, and the vowels "a, e" melt after the thin vowels "u, sh". This sign does not exist in Altaic at all; It is rare in Kyrgyz and brings Lobnor language closer to Kyrgyz language. The "y" at the beginning of the word is a personal sign of the Uyghur language and is characteristic of both its ancient and modern forms, as well as the Yellow-Yugur language: "yol" - road, "yaz" - spring, "yel" - wind. In the middle of the word - "g": "mouth" - a company, a craftsman; "White" - to grind, "tag" - mountain. The word "s // z", which is characteristic of all Kyrgyz dialects, makes our language similar not only to the Altaic, but also to the Khakas, Tuva and Yakut (Sakha) languages: "Kyz \\ kys"; "Word" b. It belongs to the ancient period of our language and is a remnant of its above-mentioned "z" period. 3. The New (Tien Shan) period of the Kyrgyz language dates back to the 15th-16th centuries, when our people migrated from the Yenisei to the West, migrated to the Tien Shan and mixed with local tribes, and as a result of assimilating their linguistic features (for example, Ethnonyms such as "and" Chekir Sayak "are characteristic of the ancient Yenisei period," chigil ", and semantically similar adjectives such as" raw "and" raw yellow ") modern Kyrgyz common language is formed with all its dialectal and idiomatic features. begins. Moreover, the oldest signs are often preserved in the northern dialects. Modern Kyrgyz, on the other hand, is generally a "y" language; substitutes (i.e., those that arise later); very strong melting; the preposition "j" chyl; The diphthongization or vowel of "g" in the middle and at the end of a word is characteristic. As in the Lobnor language, "g" is preserved in all positions, so in Kyrgyz it is possible to assume that its transformation coincides with the end of the middle period of the history of the Kyrgyz language.